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    On Jealousy and Female Mating Strategies

    This is an article I generated regarding studies such as Dr. David Buss's Mate Switching Hypothesis that I figured people here would find interesting, so please let me know what you think:

    Abstract
    The following article reviews literature regarding female mate guarding, male mate guarding, and female aversion to mate guarding in the context of Good Genes Sexual Selection Theory, Sperm Retention Hypothesis, and Mate Switching Hypothesis. Mate guarding by both sexes is preceded by jealousy and serves to protect relationships and the propagation of genes from mate poachers. While male mate guarding is heightened when partners are fertile and more attractive, females may mate guard valued partners due to mate value discrepancies. Mate guarding manifests differently amongst the sexes and may be indicative of mate switching being a primary function of humans.
    Keywords: jealousy; mate guarding; aversion to mate guarding; good genes
    How Jealousy Made Us
    Jealousy is commonly viewed as childish, characteristic of low self-esteem, or simply not conducive to an effective relationship. From a perspective based in evolutionary psychology, this is far from the case. To understand jealousy in a contemporary context, research investigating its origins is taken into consideration. Jealousy serves a multifaceted purpose in our motivations to be vigilant regarding a partner’s fidelity (Buss, 2011). These motivations may lead us to acts ranging anywhere from leaving behind a pair of underwear at a significant other’s apartment to engaging in a full-on brawl.
    Humans have a vested interest in providing for their own offspring, and as human females have an internal fertilization process, they always know that a child is partially theirs. Males, on the other hand, aren’t so lucky. For males, a partner’s sexual infidelity runs him the risk of being cuckolded. This is in complete opposition to his vested interest of investing in his own offspring as he may end up investing in a competitor’s genes. On the other hand, although a woman always know that a child is hers, a partner’s emotional infidelity may mean a loss of commitment, and ultimately, their resources to take care of the child. By this, jealousy is hypothesized to be an emotion elicited by perceived threats to relationships, and their resources.
    In accordance with the jealousy hypothesis, a cross-cultural study looking at Germany, the United States, and the Netherlands, found that males were troubled by imagining a partner’s sexual infidelity while females were bothered by imagining a partner’s emotional infidelity (Buunk, Angleitner, Oubaid, & Buss, 1996). Manifesting as the emotion of jealousy, pair bonded individuals may mate guard to protect reproductive resources. David Buss (2002) hypothesizes that mate guarding evolved for two reasons: to deter partners from switching mates (e.g., higher status mates) and hinder the success of mate poachers. The goal of mate poachers being to persuade a party in a preexisting pair bond to engage in sexual acts (Davies, Shackelford, & Hass, 2007). This is bolstered by more than 80% of females and males reporting either a previous partner or themselves being the target of a mate poacher (Schmitt & Buss, 2001).
    The purpose of this article is to examine male and female mate guarding as well as female aversion to mate guarding in the context of Good Genes Sexual Selection Theory, the Sperm Retention Hypothesis, and the Mate Switching Hypothesis (Buss, Goetz, Duntley, Asao, & Conroy-Beam, 2017; Gangestad, Garver-Apgar, & Simpson, 2007; Sela, Weekes-Shackelford, Shackelford, & Pham, 2015).
    Literature Review
    Good Genes Sexual Selection Theory
    Good Genes Sexual Selection Theory emphasizes female mate choice during the fertile phase with implications in when males are prone to mate guard. In human reproduction, variance by genetic material that offspring receive by progenitors may hinder or facilitate their reproductive success (Gangestad, Garver-Apgar, & Simpson, 2007). Due to these reproductive pressures, mating with individuals displaying traits characteristic of reproductive success provides reproductive advantages to offspring. In long-term relationships, a male’s willingness to provide as well as his genetic material constitute his value to the female. However, females during the fertile period are more attracted to indicators of good genes (see also Gangestad & Haselton, 2015) such as muscularity, social dominance, and, in particular, males who are less faithful. Furthermore, females pair bonded (in a relationship) to males not possessing traits found attractive during the fertile period had a heightened interest in other males.
    A short-term/long-term mating dichotomy (i.e., dalliances vs. committed relationships) may exist as an evolutionary adaption to guide female mating practices toward males with optimal genetic material (Gangestad & Simpson, 2000). Men would be successful as long-term or short-term mates insofar as their ability to satiate female preferences throughout their fertility cycle. In other words, males possessing less optimal genetic material are predisposed to taking on a long-term mating strategy whilst those with optimal genetic material would take on a short-term mating strategy. As short-term males appear more attractive than long-term males to females, a ramification may be variances in behavior to heighten chances of reproductive success (Berry & Kuczaj, 2000). For example, due to short-term males being attractive, they may gain sexual access to multiple women. However, long-term males would need to provide benefits such as provisioning to gain sexual access.
    As women can only conceive during 20% of their fertility cycle, shifts occur in attraction to facilitate reproducing with males possessing optimal genes; in turn producing offspring with a heightened reproductive advantage (Gangestad, Thornhill, & Garver-Apgar, 2005). This hormonally driven tendency in females is indicative of natural selection for those who chose mates with optimal genes. Unlike other species that display overt signs of ovulation such as baboons during estrus, women have a concealed form (Gangestad & Haselton, 2015), an indicator of which is heightened attractiveness. Concealed ovulation may serve to facilitate sexual acts outside a primary pair bond (short-term mating) while maintaining provisioning from a primary pair bond (long-term mating). An infidelity rate of 20% and 50% in the United States (TED, 2017) further bolsters this hypothesis. However, an alternative hypothesis to this mating dichotomy is that environmental factors such as a heightened level of pathogens drives females to prioritize good genes (Broude, 2000).
    Moreover, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) consists of varying genes serving to tell the body what is a pathogen and what is the body (Garver-Apgar, Gangestad, Thornhill, Miller, & Olp, 2006). MHC alleles vary among individuals and possession of an identical MHC is improbable; however, matching MHC alleles women had with partners inversely correlated with relationship sexual satisfaction. Concomitantly, a heightening of women’s attraction to those outside their relationship and infidelity was reported (mostly during a fertile period). Potentially, female preferences for males possessing dissimilar MHC serves to hinder inbreeding (Penn & Potts, 1999)
    Sperm Retention Hypothesis
    The Sperm Retention Hypothesis emphasizes female sexual satisfaction in relation to partner status (Sela, Weekes-Shackelford, Shackelford, & Pham, 2015); potentially heightening mate guarding in males. Female orgasm is hypothesized to facilitate retaining sperm from males possessing good genes. In a study comparing rates of female orgasm to male partner attractiveness, females mated to more attractive males reported higher rates of orgasm. This was moderated by perceptions of male partner attractiveness made by other females. This selective retention of sperm benefits the reproductive success of offspring, increases chances of healthy offspring, and pairing with healthy males.
    Mate Switching Hypothesis
    The Mate Switching Hypothesis explains that, primarily, humans evolved to switch mates instead of staying within the confines of monogamy (Buss, Goetz, Duntley, Asao, & Conroy-Beam, 2017). Predominantly focusing on female mating tendencies, factors such as relationship costs/benefits, fluctuations in partner and own mate value, and alternative mates displaying interest are of focus. These factors may lead to male mate guarding and female aversion to it. Successful mate switching would require cognitive adaptions to assess mate value as respective to all parties involved (extant partner, own, and prospective partner’s). Potentially due to these cognitive adaptions, it’s hypothesized that a heightening of mate value in females will be inversely correlated with emotional satisfaction of extant partners. Concomitantly, a heightening in mate guarding aversion, acquiring backup mates, initiation of relationships with males of higher mate value, and ultimately dissolution of the primary relationship may occur. Colloquially phrased as “keeping one foot out of the door”, the inclination to assess mates may persist regardless of relationship type.
    Similarly, Davies and Shackelford (2017) hypothesized for mate poachers to succeed, they must possess reproductive resources (e.g., attractiveness and affluence) surpassing that of the target’s extant partner. Like the Mate Switching Hypothesis, a cost/benefit analysis is emphasized. This was also in accordance with a finding that females and males report less satisfaction with extant relationships following exposure to individuals of the opposite sex displaying higher mate value (Kenrick, Neuberg, Zierk, & Krones, 1994). By women’s responses, there was a positive correlation between the amount of reproductive resources a poacher must possess to be successful and extant relationship commitment. In other words, it would be harder to poach someone married versus dating. However, reproductive resources required to poach a cohabiting target were the same as those in long-term relationships.
    Although reproductive resources are necessitated by females in the mate selection process, as environments change, pressures to acquire them may fluctuate. One study spanning over half a century found that between 1939 and 1996, “good financial prospect” was prioritized more in mate selection by females than males; a trend that has been increasing both by females and males alike (Buss, Shackelford, Kirkpatrick, & Larsen, 2001). This recent increase by males is thought to be caused by the contemporary trajectory of females in the workplace leading to an even standard to gauge mate value. Correspondingly, David Buss (1989) in a cross-cultural study examining mate preferences, found that females (more than males) prioritized “good financial prospect” within 36 of the 37 countries. Likewise, “ambitiousness and industriousness” were also prioritized among females in 34 of the 37 countries.
    Male Mate Guarding
    For men, failed mate guarding attempts can result in genetic cuckoldry (investing in a competitor’s genes) or the mate switching of partners (Buss, 2002; Buss, Goetz, Duntley, Asao, & Conroy-Beam, 2017). Due to the dire nature of the human reproductive condition, males exhibit a vast repertoire of mate guarding behaviors (e.g., staying close to partners, heightening displays of commitment, and challenging rivals) serving to hinder the success of mate poachers, partner interest in poachers, and minimize their potential instances. Seemingly a co-evolved cue, a partner’s clothing color also may elicit mate guarding in males. Reports by males and females found that, although females expected no change in male mate guarding when wearing a black or red dress, males reported heightened mate guarding when partners wore red (Prokop & Pazda, 2016).
    Not only red clothing, but provocative clothing may also serve to heighten mate guarding in males. As the fertile period drives women to acquire mates with optimal genetic material, intrasexual competition amongst females by dint of provocative clothing and accessories occurs (Meston & Buss, 2010). Females during the fertile phase also report a heightened sense of attractiveness, sexual appeal, and desire for attending social events (e.g., bars) conducive to meeting males (Haselton & Gangetad, 2006). In accordance with the Mate Switching Hypothesis, these finding may suggest, as increases in female mate value are hypothesized to decrease their satisfaction with extant relationships, heightened attractiveness during the fertile period may facilitate mate switching (Buss, Goetz, Duntley, Asao, & Conroy-Beam, 2017). Coupled with a heightened desire to attend social events, mate switching may be expedited.
    It’s apparent that a multitude of factors (e.g., the conditional nature of fertility) may hinder the reproductive success of males; placing higher pressure to mate guard. Female infidelity would serve to obtain higher quality genetic material for offspring, but given the potential risks (e.g., losing a long-term partner’s resources), it is more likely when the primary partner’s genetic quality is relatively low (Haselton & Gangestad, 2006). Robert Briffault (1931) elucidates this in stating, “The female, not the male, determines the conditions of the animal family. Where the female can derive no benefit from association with the male, no such association takes place” (p. 21-22).
    Given this heightened pressure on predominately less attractive males, jealousy, which precedes mate guarding by males, becomes heightened when partners are fertile (Haselton & Gangestad, 2006). However, fewer displays of jealousy and mate guarding may increase perceived attractiveness. Conversely, a ramification of heightening these tendencies may be relationship dissolution (Jonas, Li, & Buss, 2010). Due to female attraction variance throughout the fertility cycle, colloquially termed the “alpha-beta dichotomy”, heightened mate guarding behavior during the fertile period may be beneficial due to increases in female attraction to confrontative males (Gangestad, Garver-apgar, & Simpson, 2007).
    Female Mate Guarding
    For females, failed mate guarding attempts can result in the loss of a partner’s provisioning and protection (Buss, 2002). Although cuckoldry doesn’t pose a threat, this may cause damage to their reputation. Rollo Tomassi (2013) further elucidates cues eliciting female mate guarding in establishing the concept of “Dread”. He posits females face innate competition anxiety that heightens with age following comparative analyses between own and partner mate value. Male partners accruing economic resources over time, an asset attractive particularly to females (Buss, Shackelford, Kirkpatrick, & Larsen, 2001), heightens male mate value; concomitantly causing heightened vigilance in female partners facing declining youth and fertility. Due to this perceived discrepancy in mate value, fear of relationship dissolution and an inability to reobtain security elicits mate guarding.
    Fear of discrepancies in mate value or a partner’s realization of them may be warranted considering more than 50% of females admit attempting to mate poach, more than 80% of males admit to being targets, and half are successfully poached (as cited in Krems, Neel, Neuberg, Puts, & Kenrick, 2016). Furthermore, male pheromones heighten fertility (Meston & Buss, 2010); implications being males become more attracted as fertility heightens female attraction. This conditionally-heightened fertility, leading to a heightened sense of attractiveness and attraction to males with good genes (Haselton & Gangetad, 2006; Krems, Neel, Neuberg, Puts, & Kenrick, 2016), may also increase the female drive to mate poach. To inhibit poaching success, females prefer indirectly aggressive (e.g., heightening affection), but sometimes overt (e.g., preventing partner’s interaction with females or fighting poachers) mate guarding behavior when engaging in intrasexual competition (Krems, Neel, Neuberg, Puts, & Kenrick, 2016). Potentially an adaption to successfully mate guard; women in relationships perceive fertile women as untrustworthy and distance partners perceived as desirable.
    Like males, clothing color serves as a cue for mate guarding in females. Females reported they perceived other females wearing red to be indicative of sexual receptivity; heightening mate guarding in pair bonded females (Pazda, Prokop, & Elliot, 2014). Covertly, derogation of these females’ fidelity was utilized in mate guarding. It is not known, however, whether the cause of these tendencies is based in biology or social conditioning.
    Female Aversion to Mate Guarding
    Females avoid mate guarding for a multitude of reasons including interests in infidelity, engaging in short-term relationships, or having little interest in an extant relationship (Abell & Brewer, 2016). In accordance with Good Genes Sexual Selection Theory and the Mate Switching Hypothesis, female aversion to mate guarding potentially facilitates gauging the interest of prospective mates (Buss, Goetz, Duntley, Asao, Conroy-Beam, 2017); switching to them as a long-term partner or cuckolding extant partners through short-term mating. Moreover, in accordance with the Sperm Retention Hypothesis, higher rates of orgasm due to sex with more attractive mates may also facilitate cuckoldry (Sela, Weekes-Shackelford, Shackelford, & Pham, 2015). Consequently, the French Government may be trying to prevent relationship dissolution due to cuckoldry as French men who attempt to obtain paternity tests without their partner’s consent may face a €15,000 fine and jail time of one year (“Penal Code”, 2005).
    A potential catalyst in infidelity; discrepancies in mate value or them being perceived may also cause aversion to mate guarding. Females who perceived themselves to be higher in mate value than their partners reported flirting outside of relationships, thoughts of relationship dissolution, and an overall feeling of less commitment (Fugere, Cousins, & MacLaren, 2015). As criteria for male mate value (e.g., status) can’t be gauged completely from appearance, females may have adapted to consider other females in a male’s proximity as a positive cue for attraction (Hill & Buss, 2008). Reports by females were in accordance with this as males displayed with other females were found more attractive than males displayed alone. This is in accordance with the Sperm Retention Hypothesis as higher rates of orgasm with attractive mates was moderated by attractiveness perceived by other females (Sela, Weekes-Shackelford, Shackelford, & Pham, 2015). An adaption of multifaceted benefits; gauging males by females in their proximity serves to circumvent risks of personally assessing mate value, expedites chances of acquiring a quality mate, and heightens chances of producing male offspring other females will find attractive.
    Summary and Conclusion
    Despite contemporary views, jealousy as a catalyst to mate guarding, served to heighten chances of passing on genetic material throughout antiquity. Failed mate guarding attempts by men and women would potentially mean the end of their genetic line by genetic cuckoldry or reallocation of resources, respectively. This article focused on the variances in mate guarding as well as aversion by sex. By mate guarding and hindering mate poacher success, both sexes optimize their ability to preserve reproductive resources acquired through their partners. As variance exists in what constitutes mate value for males and females, they are incentivized to mate guard or avoid attempts by partners for differing reasons; further explained when considering the Good Genes Sexual Selection Theory, Sperm Retention Hypothesis, and Mate Switching Hypothesis.
    Based on the literature review, potentially, fertility heightens female attractiveness (perceived by self and others), changes in attraction (long-term to short-term), and increased interests in social events conducive to meeting males. By this, the mate switching process may be expedited. Furthermore, due to male pheromones heightening fertility, the existence of a cycle wherein this heightened fertility increases male attraction to females and their poaching tendencies is suggested. However, female attraction will only be heightened by males displaying good genes. In accordance with the Mate Switching Hypothesis, this would serve to diminish female satisfaction with extant partners. Concomitantly, this would also intensify mate guarding by males. Investigating this proposed cycle may be a direction for future research.
    For females, by the concept of Dread, an incentivization to mate guard is competition anxiety due to mate value discrepancies (i.e., increasing male resources and decreasing female youth/fertility) within relationships. Dread manifests as heightened mate guarding as a successful poach would mean relationship dissolution and potentially having to reobtain security. Fear of reentering the dating market may serve to heighten mate guarding as males prioritize more youthful partners. Conversely, female aversion to mate guarding may serve to gauge prospective mates, switch mates, or commit infidelity (potentially resulting in cuckoldry). Research taking into consideration dread may also be a direction for future research. Due to variances in mate value as respective to the sexes, mate guarding as well as aversion may manifest in different ways. Moreover, due to the precarious nature of the relationship between the sexes, mate switching may by a primary function.
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  2. #2
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    Re: On Jealousy and Female Mating Strategies

    Man that's long, and a lot to take in. I've only got about halfway through and although I see much in the way of humanistic behaviour so far it fails to account for today's societal norms, although it may account for a few.

    We are long past evolutionary studies. Today's male/female interactions may reflect some basic impulses but, to be honest I am beyond caring.

    Societal constructs make it very dangerous for any male to consider LTRs with women and these must take preference over biological drives (or those from previous societies).

    Research into drives and impulses are all very interesting, but when the law is against you they don't mean a thing.
    "Those who would give up essential Liberty, to purchase a little temporary Safety, deserve neither Liberty nor Safety." - Benjamin Franklin

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    Re: On Jealousy and Female Mating Strategies

    I agree super long. I got through most of it and it seems to reinforce some key red pill tenets. Women's value is in their 'fertility' ie looks. Mens value is in their 'genetic material' to produce offspring ie looks / virility / seeming ability to provide resources. The highest value men are so desirable they can take a 'short term' approach and go through partners while lower value men will try to display their 'long term' value ie ability to provide for a family. Womens value fades early while men's comes on later and lasts for ever.

    One interesting question since this is looking at it from an evolutionary perspective; how come women never evolved to avoid the attractive but 'short term' men if womens true desire is reproduction and care for offspring. It seems this only happened from societal standards long ago, such as religion, saving yourself for marriage, stigma of divorce and sluttiness. Once those were lifted, women are happy to ride the cock carousel until they hit the wall, then ask 'were have all the good men' gone. Perhaps there have always been too many such 'good men' willing to simp and cuck to take sloppy seconds and even raise the child of other men, so women never had to evolve to value the 'long term' men. Maybe if enough red pill & mgtow happen, women will be forced to evolve.

    That said, beings dont evolve overnight and laws dont change, so as Jackoff said doesnt mean a thing to us.

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    Re: On Jealousy and Female Mating Strategies

    Quote Originally Posted by TheBrownRecluse View Post
    I agree super long. I got through most of it and it seems to reinforce some key red pill tenets. Women's value is in their 'fertility' ie looks. Mens value is in their 'genetic material' to produce offspring ie looks / virility / seeming ability to provide resources. The highest value men are so desirable they can take a 'short term' approach and go through partners while lower value men will try to display their 'long term' value ie ability to provide for a family. Womens value fades early while men's comes on later and lasts for ever.

    One interesting question since this is looking at it from an evolutionary perspective; how come women never evolved to avoid the attractive but 'short term' men if womens true desire is reproduction and care for offspring. It seems this only happened from societal standards long ago, such as religion, saving yourself for marriage, stigma of divorce and sluttiness. Once those were lifted, women are happy to ride the cock carousel until they hit the wall, then ask 'were have all the good men' gone. Perhaps there have always been too many such 'good men' willing to simp and cuck to take sloppy seconds and even raise the child of other men, so women never had to evolve to value the 'long term' men. Maybe if enough red pill & mgtow happen, women will be forced to evolve.

    That said, beings dont evolve overnight and laws dont change, so as Jackoff said doesnt mean a thing to us.
    What needs to be taken into consideration here is that throughout history, most men did not reproduce, and most of our ancestors are female. One study looking into this subject hypothesized that the implementation of monogamy was actually, in part, a deal to win over votes from disgruntled men when polygyny dominated the social landscape (see research by Satoshi Kanazawa). This isn't much of a surprise given that a polygynous society would tend to be more violent. Moreover, on the subject of mate selection, it would make sense that women would select for specific traits such as muscularity, social dominance, and attractiveness (genetic material for children) in a dangerous environment given that it would heighten the chances of her survival, their offspring, and the reproductive success of the offspring. War Brides theory would also be a good topic to look into on this subject. Towards ovulation where we tend to notice this shift in attraction, there is also an attraction increase especially for less faithful men, and this was thought of as a quick vetting process for mates (i.e., these women like him, so he must be valuable). One study had women look at three pictures: Picture A displayed a man surrounded by men; picture B, a man by himself; and picture c was of a man surrounded by women. The study found that women preferred c.

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    Re: On Jealousy and Female Mating Strategies

    Quote Originally Posted by Tom_Anon View Post
    (i.e., these women like him, so he must be valuable).
    I found I did not have to be surrounded by women (plural). I only had to be seen with one woman, when I was engaged to her, and then other women began noticing me and letting me see that they noticed me, but only when I was with her. It was quite surprising and in contrast to being single. I decided it was because these other women viewed me as having been vetted by a woman as not unacceptable.
    The two most important days in your life are the day you were born and the day you find out why. - Mark Twain

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    Re: On Jealousy and Female Mating Strategies

    Quote Originally Posted by Unboxxed View Post
    I found I did not have to be surrounded by women (plural). I only had to be seen with one woman, when I was engaged to her, and then other women began noticing me and letting me see that they noticed me, but only when I was with her. It was quite surprising and in contrast to being single. I decided it was because these other women viewed me as having been vetted by a woman as not unacceptable.
    This is common, and can definitely be one of many red pill awakenings so to speak; women prioritizing men that have already been taken. Even a wedding band can be a signal for women to pursue a man as it is indicative that he has been vetted as valuable by another woman, but I would also suspect that she would perceive this to be an opportunity to engage in what the evolutionary literature terms 'mate poaching'. Mate poaching is when women or men attempt to steal someone else's partner, and in the event a man is married, and say, out at a bar, he may be all the more receptive to her advances. Moreover, as other research has shown, over the course of a year in a relationship, the female's sexual receptivity tends to wane; however, in the case of the man, it stays constant. I would suspect this in part has to do with settling when forming a long-term pair bond, but also that birth control mimics the hormonal state of pregnancy. During this state, it blocks the olfactory (smell) receptivity for prospective mates that are less genetically similar. This meaning that in the event she goes off birth control later on after a relationship has been formed, the selected for male may actually be perceived as less attractive once her hormones have returned to a regular state.

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    Re: On Jealousy and Female Mating Strategies

    A bigger attraction to women is being single, well dressed, well spoken, and driving an expensive roadster.

    Or a total badass riding a hog with his gang vest on.

    Either will surface, one's for her financial future, the other jingles her tingles and makes her quiver for some bore and stroke!
    It's 1939 allover again, and we're the ones being assigned gold stars!


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