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  1. #1

    Hedy Lamarr Did Not Invent Digital Telecommunications

    It is often claimed by feminists that model, actress and porn star Hedy Lamarr invented digital wired and wireless telecommunications but it was in fact invented by men. Here is a timeline of digital telecommunication technologies:

    700 BCE: Lord Huan of Qi, the person who conceived and designed the Great Wall of China, invents smoke signalling, the 1st digital telecommunications system, to allow the army bases and garrisons stationed at various points near the wall to communicate with each other without the need for messengers. Smoke signals are generated by placing slow burning materials like the ones used to make incense and joss sticks in large jars covered by lids with small holes to ventilate the materials in order to keep the fire burning. Opening and closing the lids causes the column of smoke to flicker and the flickering and intermittent column of smoke, which serves as a binary signal, is translated into characters on the other end and written down to record the message.

    1792: Claude Chappe invents the optical telegraph, it works by using a device called a semaphore lamp which is comprised of a candle, oil, or gas lamp covered by a shutter that is opened and closed using a lever or dial. When the shutter is opened and closed, the light blinks and the sequence of binary pulses can be translated into numbers and letters by an interpreter on the other end using a code developed by Claude Chappe that preceded Morse Code. The semaphore lamp would be mounted on a tower and placed near a magnifying glass to enlarge the image of the blinking light coming from the lamp, making it easier to see. The wireless relay towers would be placed no farther than 30km from each other so that the tower does not go beyond the horizon and out of sight and so that the light does not become too distorted by the atmosphere.

    1839: Samuel Morse invents the electrical telegraph which can transmit digital signals further than the optical telegraph because it runs through an electrical wire. The telegraph works by pushing a button that closes and opens the electrical connection between a battery at one end and a ringer on the other. When the battery is switched on, it causes power to be sent to a DC motor which rotates the ticker against a spring, causing it to strike a drum shaped bell, making a ringing sound, and when the power is shut off the spring forces the ticker back to its original position so that the on and off switching of the battery causes the ticker to keep hitting the bell to make the ringing sound which is translated on the other end using Morse Code.

    1869: Thomas Edison invents the telegraph printer which uses an electro-mechanical computer to automatically convert the digital signals into a sequence of signals that go into a linear motor that drives a puncher which then punches holes in a piece of ticker tape that produce a sequence of dots which form into letters and numbers. This eliminates the need to manually decode the binary signal.

    1872: Thomas Edison invents the automatic telegraph which transmits telegraph messages automatically. The message is initially typed as letters and numbers using a teletype, a device also invented by Edison, which converts the typed message into a series of binary electrical pulses by using each button in the keyboard as a switch to trigger specific electro-mechanical circuits that are programmed to generate specific binary signals associated with each character on the keyboard. The binary signals then go directly to the telegraph printer on the other end while simultaneously going into a circuit connected to a telegraph stylus, which punches holes in a cardboard mechanical disc to store the message for repeated automatic transmission, and both of these devices were also invented by Edison and were the 1st computerized memory devices ever invented.

    1885: Thomas Edison invents the radio transmitter for use on his other invention, the radio telegraph. It works by amplifying the signal generated by the telegraph using the carbon transmitter amplifier, another Edison invention that made long distance telephony possible, before sending it to an inductor with an iron core. The inductor generates a concentrated magnetic field because the spins of the electrons flowing through the coil are aligned in a single direction causing it to generate circulating lines of photons known as a magnetic field. The iron core in the inductor then concentrates the magnetic field to increase the range of the transmitter. Because the magnetic field in the inductor is being switched on and off, this causes the photons of the magnetic field to vibrate, generating radiation. A receiver on the other end which is also made of an iron core inductor, converts the radiation back into electricity because the electrons in the inductor are attracted to the radiation and moves in the same direction that the radiation moves. The resulting binary signal is then sent to a telegraph printer to generate the output.

    1924: Richard H. Ranger invents the fax machine, it works by scanning the document using a beam of light that then bounces off the paper and into a photoelectric sensor that generates an electrical signal in proportion to the intensity of the incoming light. The signal is then transmitted through a wired or wireless network into a photo printer that prints the document by sending the signal into a projector that projects a beam of light into a piece of paper that has had photochemicals deposited onto it using a motorized roller. When the light touches the photochemicals, the chemicals react by turning into the same color as the light that touched that specific portion of the paper, this causes the photochemicals to reproduce the image initially scanned by the fax machine from the original document.

    1969: Robert Taylor and Lawrence Roberts invent the internet by transmitting a digital signal from one computer to another through a telephone line.

    1971: Norman Abramson invents wireless internet when he connects a computer to a microwave transmitter to convert the output electrical signal of the device into a microwave that is then converted back into an electrical signal at the other end. To transmit the digital signals of the computer wirelessly, Norman Abramson invents pulse modulation and phase-shift modulation to modulate the digital signals into the analog carrier wave which is generated using a high frequency inverter that converts an input direct current into a high frequency alternating current. Pulse modulation works using the carrier wave as the power supply to a transistor and using the digital data signal to switch the transistor on and off by sending the digital signal to the base of the transistor. When the digital signal goes into the base of the transistor, it enters the charge carrier diffusion region and goes into the transistor to change its electrical conductivity by increasing the conductivity to the point that the carrier signal can pass through the collector and into the emitter, the output is then sent to the transmitter and this is equivalent to a binary '1'. When no digital signal goes into the base of the transistor, the transistor cannot conduct the carrier signal so no output is generated, and this is equivalent to a binary '0'. While phase-shift modulation works by sending the carrier signal generated by a high frequency inverter into the input terminal of an IC while the digital data signal is sent into the control terminal of the same IC, when no output goes into the control terminal, the electrical connections are not switched, so the carrier signal passes through the default output of the IC, the initial output terminal, which is shorted to the transmitter, and since no phase shift occurs, this is equivalent to a binary '0'. When a signal is sent to the control terminal, the output connection is switched to the secondary output terminal which is connected to a capacitor. The capacitor induces a phase shift in the carrier signal which is equivalent to a binary '1', and the carrier signal passes through the secondary output terminal until another digital signal goes into the control terminal. When this happens, the connection is switched back to the primary output terminal and the phase of the carrier signal is shifted back, and this is again equivalent to a binary '1'. When no digital signal goes into the control terminal after the connection is switched to the secondary output, the carrier signal continues to pass through that output and no phase shift occurs so this is again equivalent to a binary '0'.

    1990: Tim Berners Lee invents the World Wide Web which integrates all the internet networks into a single global network. He does this by inventing standardized internet communication protocols that would allow all the servers to communicate without errors such as the ftp (File Transfer Protocol), http (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), html (Hypertext Markup Language), and xml (Extensible Markup Language).

    1990: An American company called General Instruments invents the digital communication protocols and devices for:

    Digital Radio
    Digital Telephone
    Digital Cinema
    Digital Animation
    Digital TV
    Digital Cable TV
    Digital Cellphone

    1992: Frank J. Canova invents the touchscreen digital smartphone called the Simon Personal Communicator. It works by having microscopic capacitive sensors embedded in the screen that convert the person's touch into electrical signals which are stored in capacitors and scanned sequentially by sequential circuits. When the capacitor is discharged, the current goes into and switches on an adjacent circuit that generates a binary signal specific to that sensor and then the unique sequence of binary signals generated by stroking the touchscreen in a specific manner goes into the processor which uses the loaded processes to generate the output which is sent into the screen, speakers, vibrator, microwave transceiver, and memory. Although initially expensive, the touchscreen smartphone becomes a mass market phenomenon when Steve Jobs finds a way to improve the smartphone's performance and lower its cost with his introduction of the i-Phone in 2007.
    Last edited by N567; Today at 12:59 PM.

  2. #2
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    Re: Hedy Lamarr Did Not Invent Digital Telecommunications

    I wouldn't even have thought of smoke signals but of course you're right.

    A few references to any source material you may have used would have been nice but nevertheless a good post on the history of digital communications highlighting just how little the female contribution has been.

    Cheers.
    "Do not go where the path may lead, go instead where there is no path and leave a trail." - Ralph Waldo Emerson

    All we can do is keep ourselves from all those who don't deserve it. Dave Matthes

  3. #3

    Re: Hedy Lamarr Did Not Invent Digital Telecommunications

    Quote Originally Posted by Jackoff View Post
    I wouldn't even have thought of smoke signals but of course you're right.

    A few references to any source material you may have used would have been nice but nevertheless a good post on the history of digital communications highlighting just how little the female contribution has been.

    Cheers.
    It would be more precise to say no contribution.

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    Re: Hedy Lamarr Did Not Invent Digital Telecommunications

    Quote Originally Posted by N567 View Post
    It would be more precise to say no contribution.
    Ah come on now, don't you think you're being a little disingenuous there. I'm sure there were quite a few making tea and sandwiches to keep the guys going .
    "Do not go where the path may lead, go instead where there is no path and leave a trail." - Ralph Waldo Emerson

    All we can do is keep ourselves from all those who don't deserve it. Dave Matthes

  5. #5

    Re: Hedy Lamarr Did Not Invent Digital Telecommunications

    Quote Originally Posted by Jackoff View Post
    Ah come on now, don't you think you're being a little disingenuous there. I'm sure there were quite a few making tea and sandwiches to keep the guys going .
    The ingredients for the tea and sandwiches were made in factories invented by men. For example the quern stone used to grind grains and make the 1st flour based products was invented in China in 8000 BCE by men, while the animal mill was invented in China in 1000 BCE, the watermill was also invented in China in 30 CE by Du Shi, and the windmill was invented in China in 400 CE.

    Using factory machines like the quern stone allowed the Chinese to mass produce plenty of ingredients for processed food, and the chefs, who were all men, and who ran the restaurants and fast food stalls in the Chinese empire introduced the following food products:

    Salt
    Bread
    Cake
    Noodles
    Dimsum
    Fried Rice
    Tea

    Men from China also introduced the 1st sandwiches which they called Cuapao, it is comprised of seasoned and cured ham placed inside a bread bun that has been sliced in the middle.


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